Wednesday, 26 June, 2013
11:30 amRegistration & Table Top Exhibition Setup
12:50 pmOpening Remarks
Dr. Ronald S. Schotland, Schotland Business Research, Inc.
BioPlastek Forums Organizer
1:00 pmSession 1:IS THE SUCCESS OF BIOPLASTICS DEPENDENT ON CONSUMER BUY-IN?1:00 pm - 3:10 pm
Is it really important to engage the customer or will renewable materials just become part of the supply chain? If the consumer is to be engaged, how will it be explained? It’s way more complicated than recycling!!... This session features new consumer research and major brand owners who will talk about consumer engagement in bioplastics. Additionally there will be a panel discussion in which we will ask attendees for their opinions on consumer engagement.
- Ted Goldman, Ph.D., The Martec Group
BioPlastek Forum Organizing Committee
PlantBottle Packaging: Turning Sustainable Innovation into Commercial Reality
- Scott Vitters, General Manager, PlantBottle Packaging Platform
The Coca-Cola Company
Abstract: Coca-Cola has successfully advanced its PlantBottle™ packaging program to the level of 14 billion PlantBottle™ packages in 25 countries and is on its way toward having all of its PET resin contain first generation PlantBottle packaging material by 2020. This massive green initiative can only be successful with consumer acceptance of a novel bioplastic. This presentation will explore the innovative market strategies Coca-Cola is implementing to help turn green into gold.
Stonyfield Farm and Bioplastics: Does Mission Meet Message?
- Wood Turner, Vice President of Sustainability Innovation
Abstract: Stoneyfield Farm is a manufacturer of organic yogurt products. With a commitment to healthy food, healthy people, a healthy planet and healthy business, it’s not surprising that they would implement bioplastic packaging as a mission imperative. Stonyfield will share their experience with launching PLA and Green PE packaging and the response, or lack of it, from consumers.
Do Sustainable Materials Sell Cars? A Ford Perspective
- Carrie Majeske, Manager, Product Sustainability
Ford Motor Company
Abstract: Unlike packaging, cars contain an enormous number of parts and materials, must last a long time, and are a huge financial and emotional purchase decision. Sustainability is complex for both the manufacturer and consumer. Ford will share recent experience with renewable and recycled materials in production vehicles, including elements of the business case, marketing and communications perspectives and key issues as they develop alternative materials for future products.
Consumer Perspectives on the Role of Bioplastics in the Mix of Environmental Packaging
- Jonathan Asher, Executive Vice President
Perception Research Services
Abstract: Consumers are bombarded with so many selling messages including environmental benefits. Perception Research Services will present new research that uncovers what consumers say vs. what they do, and what messaging is most motivating. In particular, this presentation will share consumer perspectives regarding the role of bioplastics in the mix of environmentally friendly packaging.
Panel Discussion - Bioplastics Success and Consumer Buy-in
03:10 pmBeverage Break & Table Top Exhibition
3:50 pmSession 2:VISIONARIES: EARLY ADOPTERS FOR SUSTAINABILITY3:50 pm - 6:15 pm
Plastics manufactured from plant-based raw materials are becoming a reality. However, they come at a cost premium. This session will discuss why brand owners choose renewable materials for their products in spite of added cost. Speakers will also discuss how renewable materials have to coexist with recycling (raw materials as well as the product itself) --- are these competitive or reinforcing in reaching sustainability goals? In addition, challenges related to biomaterial supply chains will also be covered.
- Ted Goldman, Ph.D., The Martec Group
BioPlastek Forum Organizing Committee
Road-Map for Early Adoption of Bioplastics: A Supplier's View
- James Kahn, Commercial Manager
Abstract: Green Polyethylene manufacturer Braskem works with early adopters to develop applications for their innovative biopolymer. This presentation reviews the current status of Green PE and details how working together with partners thru the value chain yields successful programs.
Bioplastics - Visionary Brand Owners are Leading the Way
- Toby Reid, President & CEO
Abstract: Canadian company Solegear manufactures customized proprietary bioplastics formulations. After eight years developing a bioplastics business, CEO Toby Reid sees real opportunities developing. As confirmation, Best Buy Capital, the investment arm of Best Buy Co., Inc. recently made a strategic investment in Solegear. This presentation will describe how commitment to sustainability will be the driver of the bioplastics industry.
Creating Consumer Awareness and Brand Value With Durable PLA Solutions
- Hugo Vuurens, Director of Business Development
Abstract: PLA has opened many doors in the development of bioplastics products, packaging being the first frontier. Moving into durables represents a new challenge- products must be durable! Perhaps the greatest challenge is winning over the automotive industry where lifecycles are very long. Purac will describe how their new products are impacting early adoption in the automotive industry.
A Hierarchial Model for Materials Selection in Sustainable Product Design
- Martin Wolf, Director, Product Sustainability & Authenticity
Seventh Generation Inc.
Abstract: Sustainable materials are increasingly core to sustainable product design. Product sustainability can be increased through increased use of recovered materials or through use of plant-based (bio-based) materials. But deciding which path to sustainability is most productive is unclear. By using readily available life cycle data, a designer can select the most sustainable material to meet sustainability objectives
Panel Discussion - Visionaries: Early Adopters for Sustainability
05:50 pmWelcoming Reception & Table Top Exhibition
Thursday, 27 June, 2013
8:00 amSession 3:IS COST-PARITY OF BIOPLASTICS WITH FOSSIL-BASED PLASTICS ACHIEVABLE?8:00 am - 9:30 am
The successful commercialization and market penetration of biobased chemical and plastics depends most critically on being cost competitive with incumbent, fossil-based technologies and products. This session and the succeeding two will pinpoint the reasons why bioplastics are currently more expensive to produce than their fossil-based counterparts. It will identify what new technology initiatives are evolving to bridge the cost gap. The session will also explore if cheap ethylene from shale gas will dampen development of bioplastics.
- Alex Tullo, Senior Correspondent
Chemical & Engineering News
Status of Technology Development: A Key Enabler of Bioplastics
- William L. Tittle, Principal & Director of Strategy
Abstract: This talk will provide an assessment of key technologies such as cellulose hydrolysis, biomass gasification, genetically engineered fermentations, and various thermochemical and catalytic technologies, all vying to provide economically attractive bioplastics production.
(Under)mining Tomorrow's Plastics? The Impact of Cheap Natural Gas On Bio-based Chemicals
- Mark Bunger, Research Director
Abstract: The shale gas explosion threatens to outcompete renewables with ultra-low cost, domestic production. How do these developments change the economic picture going forward, and what innovations does each side require to succeed? This presentation will identify opportunities and threats in the world of bio-based plastics, and will present new data and ideas for addressing tomorrow’s needs today.
An Economic Value Chain Using Nonfood Biomass Intermediates for Bioplastics Production
- Daniel Gibbs, Ph.D., CEO
General Biomass Company
Abstract: Implementation of nonfood biomass feedstocks is hampered by low density, variability and structural nature. This leads to high capital costs for large plants which has slowed industry growth. New technologies for advanced enzymes and biomass conversion to sugar will enable smaller bioprocessing plants for local, cheaper feedstocks. These smaller plants will feed a central bioplastics plant thereby reducing transport costs.
Panel Discussion - Is Cost Parity of Bioplastics with Fossil-Based Plastics Achievable?
09:30 amBeverage Break & Table Top Exhibition
10:10 amSession 4:NEXT-GENERATION BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS: KEY TO COST-COMPETITIVE BIOPLASTICS?10:10 am - 12:05 pm
In this session, the pros and cons of alternative next generation biomass feedstocks, storage issues are assessed. The impact of densification of biomass for more cost-effective handling and transport are considered. Strategies for streamlining the biomass harvesting/biorefinery operations infrastructure will be described.
- Daniel Gibbs, Ph.D., CEO
General Biomass Company
The "Hub and Spoke" Approach to Cost-Effective Biomass-Biorefinery Infrastructure for Cellulosic Ethanol Production
- Keith Wilson, CFO
Sweetwater Energy LLC
Abstract: This presentation will review Sweetwater Energy’s overall approach and concept of integrating a decentralized model (as opposed to a large centralized model). In this approach a modular, feedstock-flexible commercial scale bioprocessing machine that has been optimized towards pretreating a variety of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks on site, generates custom designed quantities of C5 and C6 sugar-rich streams for biochemical, polymer, and fuel processes. The cellulosic sugars are custom formulated, then transferred to a regional refining site as a bolt on or ‘drop in’ to the existing site for the production of chemicals and plastics. This talk will highlight: 1) the importance of innovative biomass harvesting, storage technologies and improved logistics from a distributed strategy to efficiently and economically process a variety of cellulosic feedstocks as a risk mitigation strategy, 2) characterization of the sugar stream to enable optimum bioconversion process, and 3) various process strategies for deriving custom designed, clarified and purified hydolyzate products rich in C6 and C5 sugars at a cost competitive price for a broader application.
Densification of Biomass for More Cost-Effective Handling and Transport to Biorefineries
- Allen Julian, Chief Business Officer
Abstract: There are two major challenges in converting agricultural biomass into biobased products. The first is a supply chain challenge involving the economical storage, handling, and shipment of low-density biomass to a biorefinery. The second is cost-effectively breaking down the biomass into its constituent sugars. MBI’s AFEX™ biomass treatment technology addresses both of these challenges. The presentation will describe the unique benefits of the technology and the distributed AFEX “depot” concept as well as progress in scale-up operations including the installation of our 1 ton/day pilot plant to produce AFEX treated pellets for animal feed and high solids fermentation trials.
Creating Economically Viable Biomass Supply Solutions
- Chris Roach, Project Development Manager
Abstract: As the biofuel and bioproducts industries continue to emerge and mature, focus is shifting towards the creation of sustainable, large scale biomass feedstock supply systems. A successful biomass feedstock system will be economically sustainable over a long period of time. At scale, this can only be achieved by utilizing high yielding dedicated energy crops that drive down costs and provide environmental benefits. This presentation will discuss the development methods, pros and cons, and economics of biomass feedstock supply solutions, based on low carbon, non-food dedicated energy crops such as switchgrass, miscanthus, sweet sorghum, and high biomass sorghum for the biofuels and bioproducts industries.
Sorghum: Its Economics and Potential as a Viable Feedstock for Producing
Bio-based Precursors for Bioplastics
- M.J. Maloof, Director of Business Development
Abstract: One of the keys to successful commercialization of bio-based chemicals and bioplastics is establishing a scalable, sustainable, low cost feedstock. Sweet sorghum has the potential to turn the U.S. Southeast into a global hub for low-cost, sustainable manufacturing of bio-based products near term. NexSteppe is a leading developer of energy crops and is commercializing its sweet sorghum hybrids in 2013 in collaboration with DuPont’s Hi-Bred business. Using advanced marker assisted breeding technology. NexSteppe will describe in its presentation how it is is accelerating the productivity and desirability of sorghum as a low cost feedstock for bio-based chemicals and bioplastics
Panel Discussion - Next-Generation Biomass Feedstocks: Key to Cost-Competitive Bioplastics?
Special Luncheon Presentation:
Selective, Economic Synthesis of Para-Xylene from Biomass and Ethylene
- John Bissell, CEO
1:15 pmSession 5:PROMISING ROUTES TO COST-EFFECTIVE BIOPLASTICS1:15 pm - 3:10 pm
This session will focus on key process technologies such as cellulose hydrolysis, biomass gasification, genetically engineered fermentations, and various thermochemical and catalytic technologies. It will demonstrate that the above process technologies, plus scale-ups, utilization of existing supply chains, and alternative chemistries all contribute to provide economically viable bioplastic production.
- Dr. Ronald S. Schotland, Schotland Business Research, Inc.
BioPlastek Forum Organizer
The Synthesis of para-Xylene from Ethylene
- Thomas W. Lyons, Ph.D., NSF Postdoctoral Fellow
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Abstract: Para-xylene is one of the highest volume chemicals derived from petroleum and serves as the precursor to polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which is used for the manufacture of plastic bottles, fibers and films. Traditionally, a mix of xylene isomers together with benzene and toluene are produced by reforming crude oil-derived naptha and the para isomer separated by distillation and crystallization. Ethylene is an attractive alternative feedstock as it can be derived from renewable biomass resources or harnessed from large domestic shale gas deposits. This presentation will describe a selective synthesis of para-xylene, uncontaminated by the ortho or meta isomers, using ethylene as the sole feedstock.
Making the Exact Same Plastics, But Greener
- Damien Perriman, VP, Business Development
Abstract: As an industry, we’re invested in plastics, foams and fibers that work – that have the performance we want and that we know how to make and use. This presentation will discuss how companies can readily improve the sustainability of their plastics and downstream materials by starting with greener, bio-based chemicals, that fit directly within their current production processes. Details will be shared from companies that are putting this approach to work.
Introducing a High Bio-Content Polymer for Broadly-Marketable, High-Performance Functional Apparel
- Jeffrey Hsu, Scientist
Far Eastern New Century Corporation
Abstract: Consumer demand for high performance functional apparel has been increasing rapidly, with particular interest in thermal control, water-resistance, breathability, and moisture control. In this session, Far Eastern will publicly unveil a polymer for these applications with high renewable, bio-based content (8-50% by weight). The polymer enables more sustainable high performance apparel, and the company will feature prototype clothing made with this polymer. This polymer was made possible by commercially-practical bio-based chemicals, and Far Eastern will also disclose its partnership here.
Greenhouse Gas into PHA Plastic at Ultra High Yield
- Mark Herrema, CEO
Abstract: The use of greenhouse gas to produce PHA plastics has the potential to significantly reduce petroleum consumption and mitigate climate change. Unfortunately, commercial success has been fundamentally constrained by the low conversion efficiency of gas into PHA, related to limited polymer-to-biocatalyst yield and inefficient polymerization reactor design. Newlight has dramatically increased the yield and reduced the cost of PHA plastic production from greenhouse gas by developing and deploying (1) a new engineered biocatalyst and (2) an ultra high efficiency industrial polymerization reactor for low capital and operating cost.
Roadmap Towards Cost Competitive Bio-based Materials
- Tom van Aken, CEO
Abstract: The past decade many innovative biobased materials have been introduced, both drop-in replacements of existing fossil based materials and completely novel polymers. Many biobased materials show compelling results in the lab and pilot plants, but struggle to meet the economics of fossil based incumbents. It is often claimed economies of scale will bring cost competitiveness to biobased materials. Avantium’s breakthrough process technology has enabled production of PEF, a unique biobased polymer with superior carbon footprint and materials performance to PET. To demonstrate PEF can be price competitive to PET as well, Avantium is currently preparing production scale up to commercial plant size. In this paper Avantium will compare the current economies of scale of biobased polymers to fossil based products and review impact of economies of scale on catalytic, enzymatic and other process technologies. Also the impact of scaling up on other elements in the supply chain like feedstock supply, consumer markets, and end-of-life options will be highlighted."
Panel Discussion - Promising Routes to Cost-Effective Bioplastics
03:30 pmBeverage Break & Table Top Exhibition
4:10 pmSession 6:OPPORTUNITIES FOR BIOPLASTICS IN NONWOVEN/FIBER USES4:10 pm - 6:00 pm
The commercial adoption of a new material in any particular application depends on the right combination of need, performance, economics, customer receptivity, the competition, and a host of other case specifics. This session sheds light on the actual decision drivers that will determine the future potential for bioplastics in the nonwovens/fibers industries, with perspectives from a number of vantage points along the value chain.
- Tom Regino, Crossroads Innovation Support Consulting
BioPlastek Forum Organizing Committee
What Considerations are Likely to Determine the Success or Failure of Bioplastics In the Nonwovens Industry?
- Dave Rousse, President
INDA (Association of the Nonwoven Fabrics Industry)
Abstract: The nonwovens industry, much more substantial and far reaching than most people realize, encompasses a number of product categories that might benefit from incorporating biobased plastics. This presentation is geared to clarify the nonwovens commercial arena, which kinds of products may have the most interest in bioplastics and why, and what economic and technical challenges must be met before they are actually considered to be commercially attractive materials.
Intermaterial Competition for Modular Carpet - What Must Bioplastics Deliver to be a Commercially Attractive Choice?
- Mikhail Davis, Director of Restorative Enterprise (Americas)
Abstract: When actual material selection decisions are made, price per pound is only one important dimension. Candidate materials are also compared on technical performance, processability, reliability of supply, customer service support, sustainability characteristics, and a range of other considerations – and that combination varies by company and finished product. This presentation brings out the combination of real-world factors that Interface needs to see from its top material candidates, if they are to become part of the company’s product range.
A Materials Manufacturer's View of How to Commercialize Bioplastics in Nonwovens
- Robert Green, Global Director, Fibers & Nonwovens
Abstract: Commercializing a new material requires a well-defined value proposition tailored to the needs and value perceptions of your potential customers and for particular end uses. How do you displace existing materials and suppliers? How do you determine your material's perceived value-in-use? What additional challenges remain? This presentation from the world's most experienced bioplastics manufacturer helps to shed light on the real-world hurdles and pitfalls involved in bringing new materials to market.
What We've Learned So Far About Using Bioplastics in Wipes - The Roll Goods Producer's Perspective
- Kyra Dorsey, Product Manager
Suominen Nonwovens Ltd.
Abstract: Downstream, the retailers and brand owners determine whether to request and purchase it, for their own sets of reasons. Upstream, the material manufacturers develop, produce and work hard to promote it. But it’s the roll goods manufacturers that actually convert it into high-quality components and finished products for their customers, which presents its own distinct set of challenges. In this presentation, the world’s leading nonwovens roll goods manufacturer for wipes shares some of what it’s learned about using bioplastics in its own portfolio - and how these materials stack up against competitive (synthetic and bio-based) materials in several important respects.
Panel Discussion - Opportunities for Bioplastics in Nonwoven/Fiber Uses
Friday, 28 June, 2013
8:00 amSession 7:OPPORTUNITIES FOR BIOPLASTICS IN PACKAGING APPLICATIONS8:00 am - 9:50 am
Packaging is currently the largest application for bioplastics, largely due to the Coca-Cola's PlantBottle™. Despite this progress, the higher cost of "drop-in" bioplastics versus fossil-based incumbent resins has limited market penetration. In flexible packaging, performance as well as cost have limited acceptance of bioplastics. Speakers from packaged goods companies, packaging converters and bioplastics resin suppliers will talk about how these challenges might be successfully overcome.
- William Stockton, Firebird Composites
A Flexible Packaging Manufacturer's Perspective on the Opportunities and Challenges of Using Bioplastics in Flexible Packaging
- Dave Busche, VP, Advanced Technology
The Bemis Company
Abstract: The focus of the Bemis presentation is not necessarily to discuss what has been done with bioplastics in flexible packaging applications but rather what could be done and why. The largest flexible packaging company in the Americas, Bemis will offer its perspective on prospects and assessment opportunities for bioplastics in flexible packaging.
Bioplastics in Sustainable Flexible Packaging: A Brand Owner's Perspective on the Opportunities and Challenges
- James H. Wang, Ph.D., Research Technical Leader
Abstract: The emergence and commercialization of bioplastics has opened opportunities for sustainable packaging of consumer packaged products and other industries. Kimberly-Clark has commercially launched a number of sustainable packaging innovations around the world. However, technical and business challenges have limited acceptance of bioplastics in sustainable flexible packaging applications. In its presentation, K-C will describe these challenges and suggest how the plastic packaging industry and packaged goods companies can work together to bring sustainable bio-based plastics packaging solutions to consumers.
Algae-Blended Thermoplastics Resins - Mulch Film from Algae Feedstock
- Ryan W. Hunt, Director of R&D
Abstract: ALGIX is a bioplastics company commercializing technology developed in collaboration with Kimberly-Clark and the University of Georgia to formulate and convert fast-growing aquatic feedstocks into bioplastic resins for packaging, agricultural, horticultural and industrial applications. ALGIX has a novel technology that converts fast growing, non-food, aquatic biomasses, such as algae, duckweed, and macrophytes, into renewable polymeric materials for use in the growing bioplastics industry. The resultant bio-resins offer a range of mechanical properties to custom tailor for use in agricultural mulch film, and many other applications.
Will Bioplastics Play a Significant Role in Renewable Packaging Applications?
- Ryan Williams, Ph.D., Good Cop
Abstract: Multiple opportunities exist to improve the current material footprint in packaging of consumer packaged goods, according to this leading green home cleaning company. It has some experience with 100% plant-based bioplastics for packaging. In this exclusive presentation will explore the question of whether bioplastics will play a significant role in the company’s packaging materials portfolio and, if so, which ones. Quality, sustainability and cost-competitiveness will determine the viability of bioplastics for Method Products, based on its ongoing evaluation process.
Panel Discussion - Opportunities for Bioplastics in Packaging Application
09:50 amBeverage Break & Table Top Exhibition
10:20 amSession 8:THE ROLE OF BIOPLASTICS IN CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGIES10:20 am - 12:20 pm
How do brand owners evaluate sustainability of packaging? Do LCAs, carbon footprints and other techniques correctly measure the sustainability? Are bioplastics really better for the planet than petroleum-based plastics? Recyclable, compostable, bio-based: Which is environmentally better? How are bioplastics being included in corporate sustainability initiatives?
- Dr. Ronald S. Schotland, Schotland Business Research, Inc.
BioPlastek Forum Organizer
Do Bioplastics Have a Role in Sustainability Solutions?
- Sue Long, Environmental Impact Manager
Starbucks Coffee Company
Abstract: Starbucks has strongly committed to driving the recyclability of its packaging and minimizing its impact. Bioplastics are but one of several possible sustainability solutions. In her presentation, Sue Long will explore where bioplastics fit in the spectrum of environmentally preferred packaging options, how recyclability might be impacted, and likely opportunities for them. This kind of guidance will enable suppliers to deliver bioplastics which better fulfill the needs of brand owners.
Sustainable Strategies for Bioplastics at End of Life
- Nina Goodrich, Executive Director
GreenBlue and the Sustainable Packaging Coalition
Abstract: This talk is about sustainability and bioplastics using the SPC's lifecyle approach to sustainability and the newly launched sustainable packaging design guide. The presentation will discuss sustainable sourcing strategies, transparent use of LCAs for bioplastics and conclude with sustainable strategies for bioplastics at end of life.
The Rising Importance of Sustainability Objectives in Corporate Decision Making - How Do Bioplastics Fit Within This Framework?
- Greg Lewis, Development Director
The Sustainability Consortium
Abstract: From material production through processing to final manufacturing and B2B or retail sale, sustainability is becoming pivotal to corporate strategy and planning. This topic is also complicated – and needs to be placed within an appropriate context for each company’s product portfolio and stakeholder constituency. This presentation addresses The Sustainability Consortium’s SMRS (Sustainability Measurement and Reporting System), how it is evolving to help companies to keep track of these issues, in support of fact-based decision making, and what challenges must still be met.
Sustainable, Cost-Advantaged Production of Intermediates for 100% Bio-Based Nylon-6,6
- Vincent Murphy, Ph.D., Co-Founder and Vice President, R&D
Abstract: Rennovia's glucose to adipic acid (AA) process offers a significant production cost advantage over the conventional petroleum-derived process, and importantly, is projected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by over 85% compared with current petrochemical process technology. Recently, Rennovia has deployed its high-throughput catalyst discovery and development platform to develop proprietary catalyst technology for the production of hexamethylenediamine (HMD) from sugars, enabling for the first time production of 100% bio-based nylon-6,6. Production costs for Rennovia’s bio-based HMD are projected to be significantly below those of petroleum-derived HMD, with a lower per-pound capital cost. Additional benefits include a 50% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and a more environmentally friendly production process compared with the conventional petroleum-derived process.
Life Cycle Assessment Study of the Cost-Effective Conversion of Citrus Waste to Bioethanol
- Bradley A. Saville, Ph.D., Professor, Dept. of Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry
University of Toronto
Abstract: Today a large portion of the citrus waste, a major by-product of juice production, is disposed of in land-fills at significant cost to juice producers. This presentation will summarize results of recent research which demonstrated that citrus waste can be cost-effectively converted to sugars and bioethanol for fuel or, alternatively, for production of bioplastics. A novel integrated process can produce bioethanol at a cost of US$1.50/gallon at a relatively low production scale of 4 million gallons per year. A Life Cycle Assessment concludes that if ethanol is used as a precursor for bioplastics, using ethanol derived from citrus waste rather than from starch would significantly reduce life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of the final bioplastic.
Panel Discussion - The Role of Bioplastics in Corporate Sustainability Strategies
12:20 pmTakeaways & Closing Remarks
BioPlastek Forum Organizing Committee
Note: ADDITIONAL PRESENTATIONS TO BE ADDED TO PROGRAM